So the good news: eggs, including egg yolks, in moderation (which is defined as 1 a day or 7 eggs/week) are safe and healthy and you don’t have to be scared of them:
The other important thing to clear up is that, often in health news, you hear about being careful with your cholesterol, HDL, LDL levels — “too high” of LDL, and that’s bad.
It’s then easy then to assume that “eating” cholesterol is bad for you.
But there’s surprisingly little evidence to support that assumption. In fact, it appears that there is no link between eating lots of cholesterol, and giving you heart disease.
That is what I concluded after I read a review article written by Harvard professors Frank Hu, Joanne Manson, Walter Willet, who are respected principal investigators of large-scale studies on nutrition, preventive medicine, such as the Women’s Health Initiative, and the Nurses Health Study. I highlighted some of the passages in that article if you were more interested (for the full article, click here Fat, eggs and heart disease):
In controlled metabolic studies conducted in humans, dietary cholesterol raises levels of total and LDL cholesterol in blood, but the effects are relatively small compared with saturated and trans fatty acids, and individuals vary widely in their responses. A significant positive association between dietary cholesterol and CHD was found in some epidemiologic studies, but not in others. In a pooled analysis of four studies [5–7,11], the relative risk of CHD was 1.30 (1.10 –1.50) for a difference of 200 mg/1000 kcal in dietary cholesterol . But this analysis included only those studies with positive findings. The Nurses’ Health Study found a weak and nonsignificant positive association between dietary cholesterol and risk of CHD (relative risk for each increase of 200 mg/1000 kcal 5 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.91–1.40).
Surprisingly, there is little direct evidence linking higher egg consumption and increased risk of CHD…The null association between egg consumption and risk of CHD observed in these studies may be somewhat surprising, considering the widespread belief that eggs are a major cause of heart disease. One egg contains about 200 mg cholesterol, but also appreciable amounts of protein, unsaturated fats, folate, B vitamins and minerals. It is conceivable that the small adverse effect caused by cholesterol is counterbalanced by potential beneficial effects of other nutrients.
These findings do not suggest that one should go back to the traditional high cholesterol Western diet. Instead, they suggest that among healthy men and women, moderate egg consumption can be part of a nutritious and balanced diet. Because eggs are excellent and relatively inexpensive sources of essential amino acids and certain vitamins, they can substitute for other animal products such as red meat. These results also illustrate the danger of judging health effects of a food by single nutrients or components contained in the food.
Wow very sorry for not writing in such a long time. It’s been a little difficult these days as second-year medical school has been much busier than I thought it would be. I wanted to post up this table from Dr. Michael Holick’s New England Journal of Medicine review article (N Engl J Med 2007;357:266-81) on Vitamin D defiency and how to prevent it. Basically, many many people we care about — 1 billion worldwide, have vitamin D deficiency. It’s very sad, because not having enough vitamin D can contribute to many diseases — like osteoporosis, and even common cancers, autoimmune disease, infectious disease and heart disease. Please if you get a chance, read the Holick article (http://www.uvadvantage.org/portals/0/pdf/NEJournalofMedicine.pdf). And check out the following table, which is from that article, which can help you make some of your decisions together with your doctor.
Here below, you will see my amateur bad attempt to try to make this topic a little more fun to digest.
Main point #1: clostridium difficile is a serious, bacterial problem in the U.S., that can cause death.
Just today (4/30/07) our professor was telling us how four people died in the hospital of this infection last year. Usually it’s treated with antibiotics, but sometimes they fail — at which point, the outlook is grim for the patient. There is good news though! Patients could be potentially treated with probiotics (although a funkier version of probiotics). With Dr. Aas, he’s reported much success with this form of treatment when patients can’t fight off C. difficile with metronidazole or vancomycin (these are the common antibiotic treatments).
Main Point #2: Von Niel argues that probiotics should be considered a mainstream therapy (see the Von Niel reference).
There are enough randomized controlled trials out there to support such a statement. But it is slow to catch on in the U.S., possibly because it usually takes 17 years for new scientific discoveries to get widely disseminated (Balas & Boren, 2000). For safety information on which strains are safe and who can take probiotics:http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstr… The authors noted: “We found that probiotics are safe for use in otherwise healthy persons, but should be used with caution in some persons because of the risk of sepsis.”
Probiotics (from Von Neil, 2005)
We definitely know it works for:
Acute infectious diarrhea
Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea Conditions that are potentially treatable by probiotics:Chronic diarrhea
Inflammatory bowel disease
Irritable bowel syndrome
Food allergyConditions that are potentially preventable:Traveler’s diarrhea
Dental cariesFuture applications proposed for:
What is clostridium difficile? (from JG Bartlett, 2006)
It’s a nasty bacteria.
Who gets it?
If you’ve taken antibiotics, are of advanced age, or in the hospital or recently came from the hospital.
What’s the significance of this problem?
A new epidemic strain of C. difficile has emerged that causes more frequent and more serious disease.
What are some symptoms?
“Clinical disease and C. difficile toxin are present almost exclusively in patients with recent antibiotic exposure, with rare exceptions.” So if you’ve taken antibiotics, that increases your risk. Clinical expression of infection almost always includes diarrhea, but symptoms vary widely.
Common findings in patients with infection: 1) colitis (inflammation of the colon) with cramps, 2) fever 3) abdominal pain 4) fecal leukocytes (white blood cells in the stool) 5) and inflammation on colonic biopsy (if you do a biopsy of the colon).
Pseudomembranous colitis (a type of infection of the colon) represents an advanced stage of disease, and although considered “nonspecific,” it is nearly diagnostic of C. difficile infection. The disease is almost always restricted to the colon.
A recent report implicates gastric acid–suppressive agents as a risk for disease, but this has not been consistently observed.
How come my microbiology professor doesn’t think probiotics work?
“Frequently, years or even decades are required for laboratory discoveries to reach clinical practice. It takes an estimated average of 17 years for only 14% of new scientific discoveries to enter day-to-day clinical practice” (Balas & Boren).
Why the Healthcare System Should Care
Based upon their hospital’s rate of CDAD (clostridium difficile associated diarrhea) in 0.7% of discharges,they estimated that the total excess in US healthcare costs attributable to CDAD was likely >$1.1 billion.– from the Center for Disease Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases • http://www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2006
Aas et al., 2003. Recurrent Clostridium difficile Colitis: Case series involving 18 patients treated with donor stool administered via a nasogastric tube. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003; 36: 580-5
Balas EA, Boren SA. Yearbook of Medical Informatics: Managing Clinical Knowledge for Health Care Improvement. Stuttgart, Germany: Schattauer Verlagsgesellschaft mbH; 2000
Bartlett, JG. Narrative review: the new epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated enteric disease. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Nov 21;145(10):758-64. Review.
Savino et al., (Randomized controlled trial talking about probiotics and cholic) Pediatrics 2007;119;e124-e130
Van Niel Pediatrics 2005; 115; 174-177
Weisman et al., (talking about randomized controlled trial looking at probiotics and infections in day care centers) Pediatrics 2005;115;5-9
- i’m back! (for a bit)
- a “new” take on eggs — they’re not bad!
- More fish, fish oil, omega 3
- What fish and what fish oil should I eat?
- Strategies to Prevent and Treat Vitamin D Deficiency
- Follow up to Omega-3’s
- Fish Oil Saves Babies
- Youtube Video on Omega-3 and Fatty Acids
- References for Blog Entry Titled, “Fish Oil Saves Babies with Short Gut”
- Hey I’m Back!
- Youtube Summary of Probiotics
- Professor Lamont, Doctor Aas, and the Bacteria